Karrani dynasty and end of independent Bengal

The Karranis are an important group of Afghans (or Pathans) originating in bangash (modern kurram). Taj Khan Karrani was an employee of Sher Shah, and conquered parts of modern Uttar Pradesh from Muhammad Shah Adil. He was, however, defeated by Muhammad Shah Adil, and later by Hemu, Adil's general, when he started gathering power in Tanda along with his brothers Imad, Sulaiman, and Iliyas. After that, Taj Khan and Sulaiman went to Bengal, captured large parts and finally killed sultan Ghiasuddin in 1564. He moved his capital to Tanda and ruled till 1566.

He was followed by his brother Sulaiman (II) Khan Karrani (1565–11 Oct 1572). He was known as an able ruler, and supported many Alim and darbesh. He established the rules of shariat in Bengal. Initially he allied himself with Khan-i-jaman Ali Quli Khan and Khan-i-khanan Munim Khan, provinicial governors under Akbar, but when Ali Quli Khan revolted and was ultimately defeated by Akbar, he entered a treaty with Munim Khan, and accepted Akbar as his overlord. He never after declared his indpendence, but ruled almost independently. During his reign, Orissa had become very weak: After the weak kings candrapratApa deva, narasiMha jena, and raghurAma jena, a minister haricandana mukundadeva had captured power around 1560. He had also accepted Akbar as the overlord, had opposed bengal, and had once advanced all the way upto sAtgÃo. In 1565, sulaiman attacked and killed mukundadeva and his successor rAmacandra (or durgA) bhaJja. Under the general Kalapahar, the jagannatha temple in puri was sacked, its wealth looted, and idols smashed (Riyaz-us-salatin claims Kalapahar was Akbar's general). In Coochbehar, the new kingdom established by kAmateshvar vishvasiMha about half a century back started fights with Ahom and Bengal under his second son naranArAYaNa (ruled c. 1538–87). Kalapahar went and destroyed a number of temples there, and captured the king's brother shukladhvaja = cilA rAYa. sulaiman later released shukladhvaja in an attempt to keep Coochbehar as an ally.

Sulaiman's son Bayazid Karrani succeeded him, who tried to assert his independence from the afghan chiefs. He declared himself independent from Akbar. He was killed by his nephew and son-in-law hansu, but hansu was captured and killed.

Thereafter, Sulaiman's second son Daud Khan was put on the throne of Bengal. He was very pleasure loving and an alcoholic, and again declared himself independent of Akbar. In 1574, the Mughals defeated the Daud Khan, captured the capital Tanda, and next year annexed Bengal and moved the provincial capital to Gaur. Daud Khan revolted but in 1576, Akbar's governor Khan-i-Jahan Quli Beg defeated the Afghans finally, and Bengal came under Mughal rule.

Up to history of Muslim Period of Bengal

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