In 1538, Farid Khan, better known as Farid-ud-din Abul Muzaffar Shîr Shâh Sûr, an Afghan who had already become ruler of Bihar, captured Bengal, and appointed muhammad khan sur as the governor of Bengal. Nasir al-Din Muhammad Humayun, son of Babar, took back gaur, renamed it Jannatabad, and when he left gauD.a, he made Quli Beg the governor. Humayun ultimately lost in 1539 and again in 1540; so that Sher Shah became emperor of India (1540–died May 22, 1545). However, caTTagrAma never came under his power, and the Arakan king soon took it over, and held it till 1666. In 1541, his governor Khijr Khan of Bengal started acting independent, so he was removed and Qazi Fazilat = Fazzihat made the governor. Sher Shah built the grand trunk road from sonArgÃ to attock following previously existing roads.
Sher Shah's son Jalal Khan ruled next as Islâm Shâh (1545–53). Under him, kAlidAsa gajadAni, a rAjput, who had converted to Islam and taken the name Sulaiman Khan, took over parts of east bengal. Two generals of Islam Shah, tAj Khan and Dariya Khan defeated him, and when he revolted again, killed him and sold his sons to Turani traders. Islam Shah's uncle Kalapahar (according to Akbar Nama, Mantkhab-ut-Twarikh, and Makhjan-i-Afghani; he is also called Raju, and there are folklores of his being born a hindu; another kalapahar is known during the time of bahlol lodi and sikander lodi) attacked Kamrup and destroyed the temples at Hajo and Kamakhya.
Islam Shah's twelve year old son Firuz Shah succeeded him, but within days was assasinated by Sher Shah's nephew muh.ammad mubâriz khân who ruled as Muhammad Shah Adil. He was a tyrannical but weak ruler, and the governors of different regions started declaring themselves independent (ibrâhîm khân in Delhi?); thus the rise of Karranis started under him. The Afghan governor of Bengal, Muhammad Khan, declared independence and started rulin as Shams-ud-din Muhammad Shah Ghazi. He started fighting against Arakan and won Jaunpur, but Muhammad Shah Adil's hindu general Hemu defeated and killed him in 1555; and Muhammad Shah Adil appointed Shahbaj Khan as ruler of Bengal. However, Shams-ud-din Muhammad Shah's son Khijr Khan declared himself sultan Ghiyas-ud-din Bahadur Shah (1555–60), and defeated Shahbaj Khan. In the meantime, Humayun recaptured power in Delhi from ah.mad khân sikandar shâh (1555), but died on the 26th of January, 1556. His son, Jalal al-din Muhammad Akbar (1556–1605, very tolerant of various religions), initially with Biram Khan as a regent, defeated Muhammad Shah Adil on the 5th of November 1556. Muhammad Shah Adil tried to move east, but Ghiyas-ud-din Bahadur Shah killed him. Ghiyas-ud-din tried to capture Jaunpur, but was defeated by the Mughals.
After Ghias-ud-din's death, his brother Jalal-ud-din ruled as Ghiasuddin Abul Muzaffar Jalal Shah (Ghiasuddin II 1560–63). The Afghan Karrani dynasty captured large tracts of south-east Bihar and west Bengal. His son (name unknown) succeeded Ghiasuddin, but was assasinated within a few months and Ghiasuddin III took over, but within a year was assasinated by Taj Khan Karrani who started the Karrani dynasty.
Up to history of Muslim Period of Bengal