Rise of Sultanate of Bengal

Fall of Mamluks in Delhi

Bughra Khan, very given to the pleasures of life, missed the opportunity to get the throne of Delhi, and his nephew kay khosru was named Balban's successor in 1286. Court intrigue, however, installed his son kay qubâdh (1286–89) instead (Amir Khusaraw was poet at his court). In 1286, Bughra Khan declared himself independent as Sultan Nasir-ud-din of Bengal (1282–91), and seeing infighting in the Delhi court, advanced towards it, capturing Bihar and Awadh on the way. He finally came to peaceful terms with his son, accepted him as the overlord, and returned Awadh to him. But kay qubâdh's arbitrary behaviour led to his assasination by his chief general Jalal-ud-din Khilji in 1289, who, three months later usurped the Delhi sultanate from kay qubâdh's infant son kayûmarth (1289–90), and started the Khilji dynasty (jalaluddin firûz shâh khaljî 1290–assassinated in 1296, ibrâhîm shâh qadïr khân 1296, muh.ammad shâh ´alî garshâsp alauddin khilji 1296–1316). Next year, Nasir-ud-din gave up his throne to his second son Rukn-ud-din kaukaus (1291–1301). A small part of East Bengal was under muslim rule at this time; Bihar under governorship of Ikhtiyar-ud-din Firoz Atigin was also under Rukn-ud-din; and Zafar Khan conquered triveni in west bengal for him. The Delhi Khilji sultanate did not attack Bengal in this period, but used to exile criminals to Bengal.

Split Bengal

Shams-ud-din Firuz Shah became sultan of Lakhnauti from 1301 to 1322. It is not clear who he was: Ibn Batuta claims he was son of Bughra Khan, but he might also have been the governor of Bihar, or an official of Bughra Khan. He conquered most of Bengal including sAtagÃo (again under generalship of Zafar Khan), maYamanasiMha, sonAragÃo, and shrIhaTTa=sileTa (with help from a darbesh shekh jalAla mujArarada kunyAYI; not the same as shekh jAlAl-ud-din tabriji 1297–1347). He may have renamed pANDuA as Firozabad.

Firuz Shah had at least six sons: shihab-ud-din bughra khan, jalal-ud-din mahmud shah, ghiyas-ud-din bahadur shah (tyrant governor of kAmraUpa), nasir-ud-din ibrahim shah (these four were allowed coinage in their own names), hatem khan (soft-mannered governor of bihar), and katlu khan. On his death, shihab-ud-din got the throne (1322–24), but ghiyas-ud-din defeated him and killed all the brothers except nasir-ud-din and shihab-ud-din. In the mean time, the Khilji sultanate in Delhi (malik kafur ´umar shâh 1316, kutbuddin mubârak shâh 1317, khusraw khân barwâri under title nasruddin 1317–1320 ?which of the two was from 1317–1320, and which for a year?) had made a transition to the tughluq dynasty under ghazi malik who took the title Ghiasuddin Tughluq shâh (1320–25). shihab-ud-din and nasir-ud-din with help from ghiyas-ud-din tughluq conquered lakhnauti, but ghiyas-ud-din bahadur fled to Ghiyaspur in east bengal near modern maYamanasiMha. Though he was ultimately defeated, this split Bengal into two. Both parts temporarily lost its independence as the Delhi sultanate (Jauna Khan, son of Ghiasuddin Tughluq, as Muh.ammad shâh Tuglaq 1325–1351) became the overlord with Nasir-ud-din the governor of Lakhnauti and Tatar Khan, adopted son of Ghias-ud-din Tughluq, as the governor of sonAragÃo and sAtagÃo under the name of Bahram Khan. Muhammad Tughlaq appointed an assistant governor (Pindar Khilji as Kadar Khan) and a prime minister (Malik Abu Roja) to Lakhnauti, an assistant governor (Ghiyas-ud-din Bahadur Shah, whom he released) to Sonargaon, and a governor (Malik Ijjuddin Yahya) to Satgaon. Nasir-ud-din helped Muhammad Tughluq in multan, whereas Ghiyas-ud-din Bahadur revolted, and was defeated. After this, for about ten years, Kadar Khan, Bahram Khan, and Malik Ijjuddin Yahya ruled their own parts of Bengal as governors.

Independent Bengal

In 1336, upon the death of Bahram Khan died, a guard of his, Fakhr-ud-din Mubarak Khan usurped control of sonAragÃo. (His coinage is one of the most beautiful from muslim bengal.) However, he was defeated by Kadar Khan, Malik Ijjuddin Yahya and other representatives of the Delhi Sultanate. However, Kadar Khan displeased his soldiers, who then sided with Fakhruddin and killed him. Fakhruddin put Mukhlis in power in Lakhnauti after reconquering sonAragÃo, where he continued to rule (1338–1350; Ibn Battuta came to Bengal during his rule), and was followed by Ikhtiyar-ud-din Gaji Shah (1349–1352), most likely his son. Mukhlish was killed by Ali Mubarak, who asked the Delhi Sultanate to send a governor. Muhammad Tughluq sent Yusuf, the governor of Delhi to Lakhnauti, but he died on the way, and no one else was sent. At this point Ali Mubarak started ruling Lakhnauti as Ala-ud-din Ali Shah (1341–1342), and may have shifted his capital to pANDuA. He constructed the ‘Shah Jalal's darga’ in pANDuA.

Ala-ud-din and Fakhr-ud-din had regular fights, with the former stronger in the waterways, and latter on land. Fakhr-ud-din also had to face a revolt from a fakir called Shayda, who temporarily occupied sodkaoang=caTTagrAma and then sonArgÃo, but Shayda was ultimately defeated, and sentenced to death. However, the fakirs had a good time under Fakhr-ud-din, and economy was prosperous. He, however, taxed the hindus much more than the muslims.

Ala-ud-din was assasinated by an officer called Malik Iliyas Haji, who then ruled as Shams-ud-din Iliyas Shah, who in 1352 united bengal by defeating Ikhtiyar-ud-din.

Up to history of Muslim Period of Bengal

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