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Muslim Conquest of Bengal

This is incomplete. It is currently only a timeline.

Defeat of the senas

Turkish general Bakhtiyar Khilji, under husamuddin of ayodhyA, without direct orders from Delhi (see here for a brief timeline of muslim presence in North India), attacked and defeated gAhaD.avAla in Bihar. He, however, did not want to disturb the hindu power in mithilA (another karNATaki branch), harishacandra, son of jaYacandra in kanauja, or the hindu rulers in rohtas and the region around the sona river. jaYacandra was defeated by sAhabuddIna ghorI in 1194. In 1199, bakhtiyAr attacked and destroyed hisAr-i-bihAr (bihar fort; in reality odaNDapur buddhist vihAra), killed its inhabitants, looted wealth and burnt a lot of manuscripts; and was appointed governor of Bengal. In 1200, he attacked Bihar again (by this time vikramashIlA vihar is also described as having been destroyed) and conquered magadha. In 1201 (or 1204), he defeated lakSmaNasena in nadIYah = nadIYA = navadvIpa: only he himself managed to escape (according to tradition, this with 18 soldiers mistaken for horse traders). Even after conquering lakhnauti = lakSmaNAvatI = gauD.a, the center of power was in devakoTa = modern gaGgArAmapura in dinAjapura district; and he was far from ruler all over bengal. Even in 1260, descendants of lakSmaNasena were ruling from vikramapura in east bengal; which remained almost entirely free of muslim control till the last decade of the 13th century, as also was south bengal.

Bengal under Qutb-ud-din

Bakhtiyar appointed turks and khiljis to governorship of various parts of Bengal: Ali Mardan, Muhammad Shiran, Hisham-ud-din Iwaz etc. He established many mosques and madrasas, destroyed many temples and converted many Hindus to Islam. He finally died in 602 A.H. = 1205–6 A.D. after an unsuccessful attempt at conquering Tibet with the consent of the king of Kamrup and the help of Ali Mech of the Mech tribe who along with Koch and Tharu tribes formed his northern border. It is claimed that Ali Mardan, governor of Naran-Koi was responsible for his death.

After his death Ijjuddin Muhammad Shiran Khilji captured Ali Mardan, and declared himself successor. Ali Marddan escaped and complained to Qutb-ud-din Aibak, who was ruling Delhi as a governor of the ghuris. Qutb-ud-din sent Kayemaz Rumi from Lukhnow to help, he installed Hisham-ud-din Iwaz as ruler from Devkot, who handed over control to Ali Mardan when he was appointed by Qutb-ud-din in around 1210 AD.

Bengal under Iltutmish

After Shahab-ud-din ghuri was assassinated in 1210, Qut.b ad di n Aybak declared himself King in Lahore (Delhi Sultanate). On his death in November, 1210, Ali Mardan, governor of Bengal declared himself independent and took the title sultan ala-ud-din (1210–1211). Qutb-ud-din Aibak's successor, Ârâm Shâh (1210–1211) was overthrown by Iltutmish shams ad dîn (1211–1236). In Bengal, Ala-ud-din became very tyrannical and killed many khiljis, and lost his life in an intrigue; when hishamuddin iwaz took over as sultan Ghiyas-ud-din balban (ruled 1211/1213–26, though Sultan Iltutmish recovered Bengal in 1212, 1217 and 1225; he merely became a governor when defeated by Iltutmish; some of his coinage mentions annAsiroledin illah, khalifa of Baghdad). He was a very kind ruler, and gave freely to alams, fakirs, and sayyids. He firmly established Lakhnauti as the capital over Devkot. In 1226, Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, eldest son of Iltutmish defeated and killed Ghiyas-ud-din, and became the governor as sultan Gari. He was a just ruler, and, even though he was a governor, he was allowed to circulate his own coinage, some of which also bears the name of khlalifa of Bagdad.

After his death, Ikhtiyar-ud-din Daulat Shah-i-balka, son of Hasim-ud-din Iwaz, and an amir under Nasir-ud-din, conquered Lakhnauti. Iltutmish defeated him and made Ala-ud-din Jani, a Turk prince, ruler of Lakhnauti. Iltutmish then replaced him with Malik Saif-ud-din Aibak, who got the title Yaganatat. He died roughly at the same time as Iltutmish (died 1236; succeded by sultan rukn-ud-din firûz shâh 1236–1237). After his death, Awar Khan, a Turk, conquered Lakhnauti and Lakhnor; but lost to Tugril Tugan Khan, the governor of Bihar.

Bengal under the later mamluks

During the time of Tugan Khan, Jalâlat ud-Dîn Raziyâ or rad.iyya begum sultana (1237–1241; followed by bahrâm shâh 1241–1242, ala-ud-din mas´ûd shâh 1242–deposed in 1246) ascended the throne in Delhi, and Tugan supported her (and some of his coinage mentions her). He fought a war against narasimhadeva I of gaGga dynasty of Orissa, rulers of jAjanagara, but had to retreat. Ala-ud-din Masud Shah sent Kamar-ud-din Tamur Khan-i-kiran to help: his presence convinced the king of jAjanagara to leave bengal and return. After this, however, Tamur Khan became ruler of Lakhnauti: Masud Shah was too weak to object. He ruled for two years and died on 9 March, 1247 (as, incidentally, did tugaral tugan khan).

Next, Malik-ul-shark Jalal-ud-din Masud Jani Shah, son of Ala-ud-din Jani, became governor of Bihar and Lakhnauti for about four years. After him, Malik Ikhtiyar-ud-din Yujbuk Tugril Khan, who had formerly revolted against nasir-ud-din mah.mud shâh of Delhi Sultanate (1246–1266; prime minister Ulug Khan Balban removed in 1253 by Turkish Amirs, but reinstated) twice, was made governor of Oudh and then Lakhnauti. He fought against jAjanagara and umardana, and declared himself independent as sultan Mughis-ud-din. He finally died fighting kAmarUpa. After that, Bengal went back to Delhi sultanate, but the governor is not known; but in 656 A.H. (about 1258 A.D.) Jalal-ud-din Masud Jani Shah is reappointed governor of Bengal, but he was soon replaced by Ijj-ud-din Balban Yujbaki. In 657 A.H., Taj-ud-din Arslan Khan, governor of kaD.A, attacked and conquered Lakhnauti when he was fighting in East Bengal, and finally killed Ijj-ud-din. After him, Tatar Khan and Sher Khan, ruled Bengal briefly.

Bengal under the last of the mamluks

In 1271, delhi sultan Ghias-ud-Din Balban ulugh khân (1266–1286) appointed Amin Khan and Tughril Khan as the governor of Bengal and his assistant respectively. Tughril became the de facto ruler, and extended Muslim rule far into East Bengal. He also attacked and plundered jAjanagara which held large parts of South Bengal. He then started acting independently, and finally, fought and defeated Amin Khan. He then declared himself sultan Mughis-ud-din. He was a popular ruler. Starting in 1278, he withstood repeated attacks from Delhi, but in 1282, he ran away from Balban's army. Balban installed Hashim-ud-din as ruler of Bengal, and gave chase. He requested help from Ray Danuja of sonAragà in stopping Tughril from reaching jAjanagara. Tughril was finally found and killed, and Balban killed all his family and many of his followers publicly in lakhnauti (the ones he took to Delhi to kill in front of their relatives got spared by the request of a kazi). In 1282, he made Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Bugra Khan, his youngest son, governor of Bengal and returned to Delhi.

Up to Muslim Period in History of Bengal

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